劍橋心理學辭典


英文版的心理學辭典



使用此索引瀏覽詞彙表

特殊 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | 全部

頁:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  ...  34  (往後)
  全部

A

abasement


n. Unfavorable comparison to some other person or some standard.

Henry Murray suggested abasement was a basic human need to lower one’s self relative to those other people a person considers superior to himself or herself, to give power to that superior person, or to atone for perceived errors or sins.

abasia

步行不能,瘸子

n. The state of being unable to walk due to an absence or deficiency in motor coordination.

There are numerous causes of abasia including muscle, joint, nerve, or bone problems in the legs; damage or malformation of the spinal cord; and damage or malformation of the brain.

aberration


n. 1. A deviation from what is normal or expected.

2. A temporary deviation in behavior by an individual from what is usual for him or her.

3. An astigmatism, dioptric variation, or any other defect of the lens of the eye which brings about a scattering of light so that it does not appropriately project on the retina.

4. A chromatic aberration is one caused when the lens differently refracts different wavelengths of light so that their projection on the retina does not perfectly overlap, causing blurred perception.

5. A spherical aberration is one in which the lens is imperfectly shaped, causing light from different parts of the lens to have different focal lengths, leading to blurred perception.

ability

能力

n. A capacity to accomplish a task at the present moment.

This implies that any learning or developmental process necessary to the task has already been accomplished.

Ability often contrasts with aptitude or potential or inherent but unrealized capacity which needs further learning or development to become an ability.

Intelligence tests measure ability and are sometimes used to infer aptitude for future learning.

ability test


n. Any test which measures a mental or physical competence to perform certain actions and is used to infer native capacity to learn or to perform.

Such tests are usually referenced to specific age or group norms and are sometimes used to predict future academic or vocational achievement.

Examples include all intelligence tests, the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), and the Raven Progressive Matrices Test.

Ability Test refers to a test designed to measure either aptitude or achievement.

While aptitudes are defined as inherent abilities for learning and raw talents, they are sometimes measured through a person's achievements because the tests are designed incorrectly.

The many types of ability tests include verbal, numeric, literacy and abstract reasoning tests.

ablation


n. The surgical removal of part of an organ.

Ablation of portions of the brain was often used as a method of investigating brain function in the 20th century.

Abney effect


n. 1. A perceptual distortion that occurs when a large surface is suddenly illuminated such that the center appears to be lighted before the edges.

When a large surface which has been illuminated is suddenly darkened, the center appears to be illuminated longer than do the edges.

2. A perceived change in the hue of light when white light is added to monochromatic light, thus increasing total illumination.

abnormal

不正常,變態


adj. Differing from the usual, expected, or mean. In psychology this term is used both in the statistical sense of deviation from the central tendency of a distribution and in the sense of behavioral deviation from the social norm.

Confusion often arises as a result of failing to specify which use of the term is meant.

So a person with a very high IQ is abnormal in the statistical sense but not the pathological one.

abnormal psychology

變態心理學

n. The study of persons whose behavior causes significant distress to them or others; the behavior’s cause is believed to be the pathological functioning of the mind.

This field includes the development, classification, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

The term abnormal psychology is not applied in a statistical sense to both the highest and lowest functioning persons but only to the lowest functioning ones, and so the term is usually used in a pejorative sense rather than a statistical one, causing significant confusion among laypersons.

abortion


n. The early termination of a pregnancy by means of either a surgical procedure or biological processes.

A slight majority of first human pregnancies are aborted by biological processes and referred to as spontaneous abortions or miscarriages.

頁:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  ...  34  (往後)
  全部